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杨长槐

杨长槐,字厚恒,号侗槐,又名乎石。1938年12月12日出生,侗族,贵州天柱兰田歇团村人,擅国画。美协贵州分会会员。中国美协三、四、五、六届理事,贵州美协三、四届主席。中国文联六、七、八届委员。

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       星桥等地观瀑。那些瀑布和激湍奔腾的山涧激流,是我平生看到的最奇美雄肆的水景。这奇丽的水景构成我难忘的贵州印象。当我再看到长槐先生一大批作品时,我的贵州印象又被重新掀起,尤其是作为长槐先生作品主体的那些奔腾咆哮的贵州水景,一种亲切的感动之情油然而起。的确,长槐先生山水画一个最大的特征就是亲切。这是我们在今天中国山水画界很难找到的一个特点。在山水画界,我们可以找到造型奇崛的,找到山势雄浑的,找到笔墨苍茫的,找到哲理深邃的,但你如果要找画山水画得亲切的,就不太容易。杨长槐先生的山水画就让人感到亲切。

 

       长槐先生作画之初衷,就因为他太喜爱家乡的山水了。长槐是侗族人,侗族所在的黔东南,那可是全国出了名的风景区,著名的喀斯特地貌本身就属绝佳之风景,奇瑰之山景,清丽之江水,古老的侗寨,还有别具特色的风雨桥、鼓楼,再加上闻名中外的侗族大歌……人们常说,侗族本身就是个诗意、艺术的民族,仙境般地方出来的长槐要当山水画家,岂不自然而然么?长槐喜爱自己的家乡,骄傲于侗山侗水侗人,他每画必题自称“侗人”,其家乡情结可谓溢于言表。长槐要画美丽的侗山侗水也再自然不过。你去看他的画,不少直接画的就是侗家山水。爱屋及乌,长槐要画他的黔山黔水,也同样是很自然的。贵州景观在全国十分著名,仅一座森林城市“爽爽的贵阳”,就令人向往。难怪长槐山水画一大半,画的都是家乡,是贵州的山水。以后他的足迹遍布全国,东北的长白山,华东安徽的黄山,西藏的雅鲁藏布江,西部的帕米尔高原,南国的三亚,无不留下一批批作品。长槐先生画的亲切感,源于他对家乡对祖国山水的挚爱。


       也正因为此,长槐先生是带着感情作画的。这是他的山水画亲切感的来源。长槐所有的山水作品全来自他亲历过、感动过的现实。由于亲历,他的山水画都源自现实,长槐欣赏石涛所说的“搜尽奇峰打草稿”。因为造化之变幻万端,可以给画家以无穷无尽的启迪。长槐的山水画,都有直接写生现实山水的依据。那些本来就如画的深山侗寨,春天山寨里美得让人心醉的老树梨花,还有江上的木筏、风帆,他画深山里的森林,大山间的铁路、工厂,也画雄奇的华山和明丽的南国热带风光。长槐甚至有别出心裁地专门画树画森林之作,如北国的白桦林、海南的红树林、孔庙的古柏树、高山的杉林、热带的雨林。森林,这些山水画界少画的题材,是长槐在山水画界一抹别致的亮色。当然,长槐最著名的还是画水,他画黄果树瀑布,画贵州各地的激流和飞瀑,画溪,画涧,画河,画湖,直至画海涛。画水之绝活,使山水画界难有出其右者……长槐画他本来就极为丰富的人生经历中见到的几乎一切让自己感动的景象,无疑是当代山水画界中题材最丰富的画家!

       长槐作画,不仅题材丰富,同样因为“师造化”,他的绘画技法图式也千变万化,绝无半点套路。清人石涛说:“山川人物之秀错,鸟兽草木之性情,池榭楼台之矩度,未能深入其理,曲尽其志,终未得。”长槐欣赏石涛这种于自然中求画理画法的观点。以长槐画水之法来看,他一则继承于传统,如对传统画水诸家如唐代孙位、蜀孙知微、宋马远之《水图》等,或作意境之感悟,或作图式之借鉴,又有苏轼论水推崇活水法之启迪,加之贵州多瀑,又更求法于自然。长槐面向自然总结了一套 “激流画法”“瀑布画法”及画水步骤,其中更对激流飞瀑总结出以石托水,分层勾线,块面分割、线求灵动,意象变化等多种方法。长槐在画水上的诸多技法创造,大大丰富了古人的技法系统。对此,王朝闻先生曾有评价称长槐画水“纸上之激流或飞瀑无声胜有声,丰富了马远所探索之画水法。这一可喜成就基于长槐熟谙黔山黔水之独特个性”。邓福星先生总结长槐画水:“他画水的技艺很高,能用淡墨画出极为丰富而微妙的层次和韵律。他不着一色,充分发挥笔墨的表现力,更加强化了激流飞瀑的动势,从而也更强化了他的艺术个性。”长槐不仅在观水中求水法,亦在青青茶山、茶树行列之排列流转中体会画面节奏与旋律,在山岩岩石节理与形态中找到雄肆劲健的用笔,又在拔地而起直插青天的大树形态中寻觅方正刚直的截断式树木构图,在大山云气烟岚明灭幻变中呈现虚实浓淡之处理……正是由于地方山水的独特个性促成了长槐画法和绘画风格的独特性。

       长槐山水画有个更重要的特点,就是他不仅重视现实山水的形态特征及其技法表现,更重视对现实山水的情感体悟。中国山水画之所以不同于西方风景画,正是缘于中国山水画不仅仅是对现实景物的单纯模仿,更要加入画家的心灵感悟和对物象的主观处理。此之谓“意象”或“意境”,长槐先生对此有充分的自觉。在研究长槐的艺术时,我吃惊地发现,其文艺素养极高。他不仅十分熟悉中国古典的画史、画论,而且相当熟悉中国古典文论与诗词,对中国这些古典文化的经典,如《文心雕龙》《昭明文选》《石涛画语录》《人间词话》等内容与语句,他可以触景生情信手拈来。尤其是古典诗词之警句,常常是随景生发,娓娓道来而妙趣横生妥帖真切。他知道,意境是中国山水画的灵魂。他甚至认为,中国古代文艺理论和美学要求所有的艺术表现都要有意境。而意境也是中国历代艺术遵循的一条基本原理。他认为,意境乃是对实境的描绘而触发的虚境,所产生出的艺术幻想和联想。意境又是对实境的心理与哲理的升华。有如刘勰所谓“寂然疑虑,思接千载;悄焉动容,神通万里。吟诵之间,吐纳玉珠之声;眉睫之前,卷舒风云之色”。或许,长槐画激流瀑布就是这种心灵感悟与意境表现的最完美的结合。除了从小在家乡观水戏水的情结之外,水的心灵的精神象征也是其情有独钟之处。在长槐看来,水是生命之源,它比任何物质都更显生命活力,它形无定状,却能随物赋形;静而无闻,却能喧响奔放,声如巨雷。既柔且弱,却可穿石越岭,力能溃堤。水是一种精神的隐喻,更是一种精神的象征,有无限的理趣,发人深思,催人奋进。长槐在激流飞瀑中体验人生的畅快淋漓。所谓“养得心中无一物,悬岩峭隆又何惧”。故长槐画水亦多画激流险滩惊涛悬瀑一类动势强烈撼人心魄的水景,这当然就不是一般的物景而是直扣人心的意境。同样,长槐喜画树,也有其画树之理趣。例如他画过一批古柏。原来全是山东孔庙之古柏。这些有着2000余年历史的古柏虬劲苍古,倔强挺立,让人流连感佩。长槐一一画来,题辞曰:“余数次参观孔庙,忆庙中古柏坚硬雄奇,骠悍如武士,枝干扭曲变化无穷,意象万千,让人联想极富钢性气质,乃正是民族应具备之精神。”他的树又有“凛然”之意,如画巨树生巉岩,长槐题曰:“石岩下仰视古木,根从石缝中出,树干直立耸天,枝叶虬结,碧天下霜皮突兀,更显生命力。其凛然生枝,令人钦佩矣”……长槐作画首重个人感悟和意境的创造。他的境界偏重于质朴与浩大。他的水总是奔腾浩荡,他的树总是虬劲苍古,他的山也总是苍茫空阔。然而如前所述,所有这些山水又都是其亲历亲悟而来,与传统文人山水隐逸超远、冷冷不食人间烟火的境界形成鲜明对比。长槐山水那种亲近感也由此意境中生出。

       长槐山水画那种亲切感人的意境美的创造,对今天山水画界应当有重要的启示。从山水画历史的角度看,在宋元时期,我们的山水画是讲究意境创造的。宋人郭熙称,山水画当有入其画中可居可游之意趣。“君子之所以渴慕林泉者,正谓此佳处故也。故画者当以此意造,而鉴者又当以此意穷之。此之谓不失其本意也。”画《富春山居图》的元人黄公望也是随身带着写生工具,“或于好景处,见树怪异,便当模写记之……李成、郭熙皆用此法。郭熙画石如云,古人云:‘天开图画’者是也。”(《写山水诀》)这种写生写实创造意境的风气与同时期宋词元曲之意境倾向是一致的。画坛此风一直持续到明代中期吴派。明末董其昌、陈继儒们力倡笔墨,“四王”发扬光大而开画史新风。笔墨登场,丘壑退位,“胜于丘壑为作家,胜于笔墨为士气”(清·盛大士),画丘壑者已低人一等,意境更不复言。此时已是“作画第一论笔墨”(清·王学浩)了。此风一开,至今而不衰。这种以程式替天工,以笔墨压丘壑的风气,在清中期扬州八家时已断送过山水画的前途。今天山水画家在家舞笔弄墨,远离自然,以致千人一面,宾虹山水一片黑的山水画格局又起,则长槐先生恢复山水画的视觉性,重视意境创造,重视画家在现实中的感悟,回归“外师造化,中得心源”(唐·张璪)这个中国山水画之灵魂,无疑是杨长槐先生山水画在今天所具有的特别意义。

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