艺术动态

任惠中艺术工作室系列报道(17)—导师任惠中甘肃环县写生纪实之六

时间:2015-02-27         


      速写主要的意义在于最有效地培养我们敏锐的观察力和艺术的概括能力。它让我们掌握这样一种重要的观察事物的方法:在一瞬间就应该判断哪些是属于具有本质意义的特征,应该“取”,哪些是属非本质的、极其偶然性的现象,把繁复的对象弄得有条有理,除了分出“精华”与“糟粕”,还分清了主次、轻重、缓急的关系。要具备这样的技巧,除了多做“拳不离手”那样的不间断的磨练,还有一个重要条件,甚至是决定成败的基本条件,那就是要熟悉所描绘的事物。只有掌握客观事物的规律,才能得心应手地表现出来。叶浅予同志谈到他画舞蹈速写的经验时说:“怎样才能把一瞬间的舞蹈动态画下来?我认为这取决于是否能掌握舞蹈运动的规律。但要掌握这规律,首先要懂得舞蹈”。他又说:“一个不熟悉的剧种,或是一个新上演的舞目,我不敢轻于动笔。遇到这种情况,我经常会看两遍。第一遍,专门看不动笔,是为了欣赏它,研究它,熟悉它,第二遍才动手画”。画人物肖像速写也如此,能否通过寥寥数笔刻画出对象的主要特征,达到“传神”的地步,首先决定于理解对象的深度。有了对生活的认识的“深度”,才保证了描绘生活的“速度”。我们经常有这种体会:刚下乡头几天我们画了一些人像速写,当时还觉得很像,但当我们与农民交了朋友,逐步深人了解他们之后,再回来看看这些速写,就觉得不行了,只是“空得赵郎状貌”,并未“移其神气”。这不能只怪感觉不好、技巧不高,而主要是理解不深。所以作为感觉敏锐见长的速写它不能只停留于感性认识的阶段,只凭感觉画画是不够的。“感觉到了的东西,我们不能立刻理解它,只有理解了的东西,才更深刻地感觉它”(毛泽东:《实践论》)。当然这样说不等于要求我们对国画所有的事物都有了深刻的理解之后,才去表现,事实上这是一个反复的过程。认识的提高有赖于实践——速写的实践,反映生活的过程也是一个深入认识的过程。从这一意义来看就奠定了速写在造型艺术中的重要地位。同时这个过程又是积累形象、积累生活的过程。速写与默写在这个过程中是扭在一起进行的,是既分不开又互不能代替的。记忆能作用于速写更好地把握事物的本质,而速写,又能补充记忆更为丰富的具体特征。因此我们说速写在形象思维的活动中不能与逻辑思维分割开来孤立进行。速写不但是经常作为收集某一创作素材的手段;作为积累形象的手段,而且也可能使速写本身具有一定的创作因素。某些速写虽然它只是记录了某些生活现象,但通过这一现象它又对生活进行了一定程度的概括,表现了生活的本质含义,出现了一定的典型性,那么速写应该说具有了超越一般写生含义的价值,也与创作一样起到了让观众从中认识生活的含义(如邵宇同志过去画的速写以及最近画的阿尔巴尼亚速写,伍必端等同志在抗美援朝时期画的朝鲜前线的速写等的作用,并能通过有限的形象,诱发观众无限丰富的想象。反之,如果思想感情不健康、审美观有问题,在速写活动中也会得到明显的反映。由于对新的生活抱着一种冷漠的态度,速写活动也就成为无根之木,就会枯死。缺乏对生活的激情,速写也就成为一具没有灵魂的僵尸。所以速写在一定程度上也可作为查验学生思想感情的手段。



速写是训练造型能力和捕捉瞬间生动神态的必经之路,也是亲历体验生活的重要途径——任惠中



面对空旷绵延的山川,让人产生一种对自然的敬畏之心——任惠中教授环县天池乡写生



每年的中秋节都是在写生季节里度过,偶尔还和教师节重叠,艺术也就成了老师和同学们最亲密的伙伴。一行五十余人的写生团,吹拉弹唱、能歌善舞的也就不在少数,一台中秋晚会一拍即合,今年最精彩的要数抽奖节目了,任惠中先生拿出八件书法作品以及画家们的十六件国画作品,通过各种节目抽奖答谢写生基地辛勤付出的工作人员。有联曰:“欢歌声、笑语声、细雨绵绵声,声声抒情;书法奖、国画奖、快乐嘉嘉奖,奖奖畅怀”



曲子镇赶会,乡村赶会也叫汇会,秦腔大戏、杂耍算卦、风味小吃、亲朋会友,跟以往不同的是少了“摇麻花”。一般集中十天半月的时间,集资、交流、贸易也是乡下人物质和精神的集散地!热闹非凡,瞬间的艺术创作素材枚不胜举了……

任惠中环县采风写生——速写作品










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